Publisher: Kenneth Kee
Publication Date: August 01, 2017
Binding: Kobo eBook
Hypocalcemia is a frequent biochemical disorder that can vary in severity from being asymptomatic in mild cases to presenting as an acute life-threatening crisis.
Hypocalcemia is too low calcium (below 8.4 mg/dL or 2.25 mmol/L) in the blood.
Normal blood Calcium varies from 8.4 to 10.4 mg/dL (2.25-2.6 mmol/L) controlled by 3 main calcium-regulating hormones (parathyroid hormone –PTH, vitamin D, and calcitonin) through their specific effects on the bowel, kidneys, and skeleton.
Calcium and phosphate are interrelated both controlled by the parathyroid hormones and Vitamin D which control the calcium and phosphate exchange between the blood and 3 systems in the body:
Parathyroid hormones work mainly on the bones and kidney to raise the blood calcium and increase the phosphate excretion.
Vitamin D raises the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.
About 50% of the total serum calcium is attached to protein, and the remaining free ionized calcium is physiologically active.
Serum calcium levels must be corrected for the blood albumin value before confirming the diagnosis of hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia.
Hypocalcemia (corrected serum total calcium level < 2.12 mmol/L) is most often a result of vitamin D inadequacy or hypoparathyroidism, or a resistance to these hormones
Low calcium levels have also been linked with many drugs such as cisplatin, antiepileptics, aminoglycosides, diuretics, bisphosphonates and proton pump inhibitors; there are other causes.
Calcium is a vital mineral, used by the body to build strong bones and teeth.
Calcium is also needed for the heart and other muscles to function properly.
When a person does not get enough calcium, he or she raises the risk of forming disorders like osteoporosis, osteopenia, and calcium deficiency disease (hypocalcemia).
Children who do not get enough calcium may not develop to their full ...